Kamis, 03 November 2011

. Noun Clause: jika subjek dan objek kalimat tersebut terdiri dari beberapa kata yg mempunyai subjek dan predikat sendiri.

Noun clause as subject:
What they are talking about makes me confused
Where she lives is not my concert
Whorever will attend to the seminar tomorrow has to come on time

Noun clause as object:
She didn’t understand whatever our teacher explained
We don’t know when the test will begin
I haven’t decided where i will continue my study

Jika menggunakan kata penghubung THAT, maka ia bisa di hilangkan
He hopes that they will accept his application
I gues she hasn’t heard the news yet

Noun clause as object of preposition:
They are talking about who will be the best student inour class
I am still waiting for what you will give to me
You must pay attention to what i am going to say
adverbial clauses modifdy verbs,adjecives,and adverbs in thesame way that standatrd adverbial do,but most simply modify verbs.they are alwaays introduced by subordinate conjunctions
clases of adverbial clauses
1. place or location
2. time
3. manner
4. cause
5. degree of comparison
6. possibility or conditionality

a. place or location
the adverbial clauses that indicate place or location often begin with one of these conjungtions:where,wherever
• Wherever you live, I will come to that place to live.
• He led the caravan, wherever he wanted to go.
• You can paste it wherever you like to be.
• Let him be arrested wherever he may be found.
• Let us go to where they asked us to wait.
• I have put it where I can find it again.
b. time
the adverbial clause that express time often with one of following subordinate conjunctions:after before,since,until
One of my children wrote to me today..
So, you're coming back next week
I remained silent for a long time.
I will be in London for three months
I saw him twice during the summer holidays.
Will you stay in Edinburgh over Christmas
She worked from four o'clock till ten o'clock.
Can you take the test between now and June?
I saw him before the match.
She left the house after ten o'clock.
When Fanny returned, she found Tom Bertram very ill.
c. manner
many ad verbial clauses that express manner begin with one of these subordinate conjucntions:as,as if ,
Henry changed his plans as the mood took him.
I was never allowed to do things as I wanted to do them.

d. reason
adverbial clauses that express reason often begin with one of these subordinate conjunctions:because,as,in order that,since,so that
• Because Marianne loved Willoughby, she refused to believe that he had deserted her.
adjective clause or relative clause is standatrd adjective does.it modifies nouns,pronoun,or other nominal.relative clauses are introduced by real relative prounouns,relative adverbs and relative determiners

1. relative pronoun
a relative prounouns is multifacted it introduces a relative clause and joins that clause to a main clause,but it also stand for a noun as any prunoun would.relative prounouns usullaly use:who,which,that
I have read the book (that) you just mentioned.
The lesson (that) she is learning is very difficult.
He paid the money to the man who had done the work
He paid the man from whom he had borrowed the money.
- This is the girl whose picture you saw.
if the real relative pronoun is a subject or a subject complement we use nomanative case form
2. relative advebs
the relative adverbs use when,where,and why join relative clauses to main clauses in the same way that relative pronouns do,but but they also function as adverbials in the those relative clauses.the relative adverbs deecribe only verbs
I understand the reason why Margo got the lead.
My favorite day of the week isFriday, when the weekend is about to begin.'



3. relative determinan
we call them relative determiners because they modify the nouns that follow them in relative clause in the same way that articles,another type of determiners,would modify the nouns that follow them.it use whose or which
1. There is a man whom I saw.
2. The women who lived next door to us lost her monay.
3. This is the man whose son is my close friend.
4. The house that I live in belongs to my uncle.

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